Introductory Courses

American Studies 10 American Makers: Workers, Artists, Activists, and Drop-outs

  • day and time MW 2-4
  • location 155 Anthro/Art Practice Building
  • instructor A. Craghead
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 25683

201 - T 10-11, 220 Wheeler
202 - Th 2-3, 155 Soc Sci Bldg

What does it mean to make? From methods of industrial mass production, to handicrafts positioned as critiques against those methods, to “make” things within American culture is to engage in a struggle over every meaning. The everyday objects of life—food, clothing, shelter—are all made things. So, too are cultures and traditions. Even ideas are said to be “constructed,” which is another way of saying “made.” Questions of what is made, who makes, and who benefits from making have long been salient with American cultures.

By focusing on the concept of “making” as a practice, a process, and a theory of meaning, this course  provides an introduction to the interdisciplinary study of America. We will look at the historical, political, economic, and cultural meanings of “making” in the U.S as expressed and experienced in literature, popular culture, material culture, and the built environment.

American Studies 10 Yesterday’s Tomorrows: Imagining an American Future

  • day and time TTh 12:30-2
  • location 12 Haviland Hall
  • instructor C. Palmer
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 23134

101: F 3-4, 115 Anthro/Art Practice Building
102: F 2-3, 115 Anthro/Art Practice Building

In 1816, Thomas Jefferson wrote to John Adams, “I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past,” a stance Adams not only declared “judicious” but also a prophecy that they would “soon meet and be better friends than ever.” This course considers many of the ways Americans from Jefferson and Adams to a host of writers, photographers, painters, filmmakers, activists, engineers, architects, and city planners have imagined the future. We will consider how concepts of the future influence and determine American politics, economics, architecture, race relations, social policy, and culture. The course will pay particular attention to the special relationship between the past, American memory, and imagined futures. By focusing on the future as a time, a place, a theory, a fantasy, and a media construct, this course introduces and provides a “toolkit” for the interdisciplinary study of American culture.

Time Courses

American Studies 101 The Ordinary and Extraordinary 1890s

  • day and time TTh 11-12:30
  • location 102 Wurster Hall
  • instructor S. Gold McBride
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 25668

This class will closely examine a single decade of American history: the 1890s. These ten years were marked by monumental and often grave events: a crippling economic depression; a lynching epidemic; war in Cuba, the Philippines, and Lakota territory; and massive strikes by steel and railroad workers. Yet in the 1890s, ordinary American men, women, and children also went to the circus, read Cosmopolitan magazine, played basketball, tried bananas, and rode in the first underground subways. In this class we will consider both the extraordinary and the ordinary in this final decade of the nineteenth century, as we grapple with questions about race, work, science, masculinity, popular culture, identity, the body, violence, spectacle, and power. We will explore this history through the interdisciplinary lens of American Studies, analyzing a wide range of textual, visual, and material sources produced in the 1890s, including newspaper articles, popular fiction, photographs, and souvenirs. This class satisfies the pre-1900 U.S. historical requirement.

American Studies 101 The Music of 1971

  • day and time MW 2-4
  • location 115 Anthro/Art Practice Building
  • instructor D. H. Miller
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 31100

The music of 1971 was uncommonly good and uncommonly inventive, and it was inextricably linked to the ups and downs of a turbulent period in American history. Marvin Gaye tackled drug abuse, environmental destruction, and the Vietnam War on What’s Going On, often considered the greatest album of all time, while Sly and the Family Stone incorporated elements of the Black Power movement into their music. Carole King and Joni Mitchell told stories about love, sexuality, and (in)dependence in the modern world on Tapestry and Blue, two pinnacles of the singer-songwriter genre. In February, Aretha Franklin recorded one of the most iconic live albums ever in San Francisco (Aretha Live at Fillmore West); in April, Dolly Parton recorded her favorite original song (“Coat of Many Colors”). Miles Davis continued his quest to expand the boundaries of what jazz could be, while experimentalists Morton Feldman and Pauline Oliveros did the same for classical music. In this course we will become intimately familiar with all of this music and more, as we consider both what the music reveals about the United States in 1971 and why it reverberates so powerfully over a half-century later. Students will have the opportunity to pursue research projects on the music of their choosing, and specialized musical knowledge is not required.

American Studies 101 James Baldwin's America, 1953-74

  • day and time MW 12-2
  • location 155 Anthro/Art Practice Building
  • instructor C. Palmer
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 25669

At the end of the autobiographical notes to his Notes of a Native Son (1955), James Baldwin writes, “I want to be an honest man and a good writer.” Remembered as a writer and activist who told the truth passionately in essays, novels, plays, and poems, Baldwin delivered piercing critiques of American liberalism and the failed promises of US-American democracy. The American Studies scholar and artist Thulani Davis remembered James Baldwin as “one of those rare figures in literature and history, a man who was truly engaged in all the issues of his time.” In this course, we will read Baldwin—against a backdrop of the social, political, and cultural moment of 1953-1974—to trace his development of thought. We will put Baldwin in conversation with his contemporaries, including Marlon Brando, Miles Davis, Lorraine Hansberry, Jackson Pollock, Nina Simone, and others, to explore the following themes: the artist as what Baldwin called “the disturber of the peace”; the reverberations of chattel slavery and American apartheid; religion and the prophetic voice; the blues as metaphor; the problem of white innocence; the meaning of home and exile; art as a tool for reconfiguring the past and the present; and the need for love, hope, and freedom in the world.

American Studies H 110 The New Gilded Age

  • day and time T 2-5
  • location 102 Social Sciences Building
  • instructor M. Brilliant
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 24132

FACULTY ADVISOR APPROVAL AND/OR INSTRUCTOR CONSENT REQUIRED

The “new Gilded Age” is a term that scholars, pundits, and activists in recent years have used to refer to the sharp increase in economic inequality in the United States, the increasing concentration of income and wealth in the hands of the nation’s well-to-do, especially its richest 1-percent and above. The roots of this watershed in recent American history are many and run deep. This course will trace some of those roots, examining the origins of America’s new Gilded Age by focusing on major transformations in economics, politics, and education in the 1970s and 1980s. Along the way, we will also consider some of the social experiences and cultural expressions of Americans as they lived through the new Gilded Age.

Place Courses

American Studies 102 The Workplace

  • day and time TTh 2-3:30
  • location 241 Cory Hall
  • instructor M. Cohen
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 23970

This American Studies methods class explores the American workplace from the slave ship to the gig economy. By focusing on a sequence of workplaces – the plantation, the factory, the office, the home, the street, and on-line – this class offers a history of how capitalism has constantly revolutionized the work lives of Americans while simultaneously transforming our politics, our culture, our families, and our leisure. By exploring the everyday experiences of workers through a series of political and economic geographies, we will consider the question of race, gender, class and sex on the job; the human and ecological consequences of capitalist expansion from 1492 to the present; and how Americans have refused, resisted and evaded this ever-expanding regime of imposed labor. Readings include works by Frederick Douglass, Marcus Rediker, Karl Marx, Sylvia Federici, Angela Davis, Sarah Jaffe, Sarah Roberts and David Graeber; with films including Modern Times, The Apartment, and 9 to 5; along with a playlist of work songs and whatever is currently your favorite workplace sit-com.

American Studies 102 AC California, the West, and the World: From Gold and Guano to Google and the New Gilded Age

  • day and time TTh 12:30-2
  • location 2 Physics Building
  • instructor M. Brilliant
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 23935

101: T 5-6, 283 Dwinelle Hall
102: W 9-10, B1 Hearst Field Annex
103: W 12-1, 105 Latimer Hall
104: W 3-4, 235 Dwinelle Hall
History 128AC

This course will survey the history of California and the United States West from the mid-19th century to the dawn of the 21st century. It will situate this state and regional history within the relevant currents of global history, which have profoundly shaped and been shaped by California and the United States West. We will pay particular heed to those elements of California and western U.S. history that are typically associated with the state’s and region’s distinctiveness as a shifting region on the national map, potent and protean symbol in the national (and, often, international) imagination, and catalyst of world historical developments from the Gold Rush and the global guano trade it sparked in the mid-19th century, to the rise of Hollywood in the early 20th century, to the development and deployment of atomic weapons in the mid-20th century, to the emergence of Silicon Valley technological innovation and New Gilded Age income polarization in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

American Studies C 112 The American Landscape: Place, Power, and Culture

  • day and time MW 10-12
  • location 155 Anthro/Art Practice Building
  • instructor A. Craghead
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 32033

101: M 4-5, 385 Physics Building
102: W 4-5, 285 Cory Hall
Geography C160

What is America as a landscape and a place, and how do we know it when we see it? In the present moment, marked by struggles over economic, environmental, and social division played out in space and place, such questions are imperative. This course seeks to address such questions, to introduce ways of seeing and interpreting American histories and cultures, as revealed in everyday built surroundings—homes, highways, farms, factories, stores, recreation areas, small towns, city districts, and regions. It does so through the lens of cultural geography, an interdisciplinary practice that developed, in part, here at Berkeley during the 20th century. Our goal in this course is thus twofold: First, to develop a kind of literacy in the role of space and place in American culture, and second to develop a working knowledge of cultural geography as a practice and then to use those skills to better see the world around us.

American Studies C 171 The American Designed Landscape Since 1850

  • day and time TTh 3:30-5
  • location 101 Wurster Hall
  • instructor L. Mozingo
  • 3 Units
  • Class # 20768
  • Fall 2021

Cross-listed with Landscape Architecture C171

This course surveys the history of American landscape architecture since 1850 in four realms: 1) urban open spaces–that is squares, plazas, parks, and recreation systems; 2) urban and suburban design; 3) regional and environmental planning; 4) gardens. The course will review the cultural and social contexts which have shaped and informed landscape architecture in the United States since the advent of the public parks movement, as well as, the aesthetic precepts, environmental concerns, horticultural practices, and technological innovations of American landscapes. Students will complete a midterm, final, and a research assignment.

Pre-1900 Historical Requirement

African American Studies 116 Slavery and African American Life Before 1865

  • day and time MW 10-12
  • location 170 Soc Sci Bldg
  • instructor U. Y. Taylor
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 30420

This course will examine the origins of the African slave trade, and explore political, economic, demographic and cultural factors shaping African American life and culture prior to 1865.

 

 

American Studies 101 The Ordinary and Extraordinary 1890s

  • day and time TTh 11-12:30
  • location 102 Wurster Hall
  • instructor S. Gold McBride
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 25668

This class will closely examine a single decade of American history: the 1890s. These ten years were marked by monumental and often grave events: a crippling economic depression; a lynching epidemic; war in Cuba, the Philippines, and Lakota territory; and massive strikes by steel and railroad workers. Yet in the 1890s, ordinary American men, women, and children also went to the circus, read Cosmopolitan magazine, played basketball, tried bananas, and rode in the first underground subways. In this class we will consider both the extraordinary and the ordinary in this final decade of the nineteenth century, as we grapple with questions about race, work, science, masculinity, popular culture, identity, the body, violence, spectacle, and power. We will explore this history through the interdisciplinary lens of American Studies, analyzing a wide range of textual, visual, and material sources produced in the 1890s, including newspaper articles, popular fiction, photographs, and souvenirs. This class satisfies the pre-1900 U.S. historical requirement.

English 130 C American Literature: 1865-1900

  • day and time TTh 3:30-5:00
  • location 150 GSPP
  • instructor E. Tamarkin
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 305134

A survey of major works of U.S. literature after the Civil War, with special attention to artistic experimentation in these years and to the rise of “realism” in literature. The “Gilded Age” put unprecedented faith in ideals of progress and individualism, in economic expansion and big business. It also was marked by all the problems of Reconstruction, by racial injustice and the rise of Jim Crow laws, by deep poverty, and by unresolved debates about the role of the federal government in social welfare. Writers responded to this moment in a variety of surprising ways that also reflected on literature’s uncertain status as a medium of social protest or else as a separate realm outside the new social realities that were made visible to readers like never before. Our authors will include Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Stephen Crane, William Dean Howells, Charles Chesnutt, Mark Twain, Jacob Riis, Henry James, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Edith Wharton.

History 7 A Introduction to the History of the United States: The United States from Settlement to Civil War

  • day and time MW 5:00-6:30
  • location 155 Dwinelle
  • instructor D. Henkin
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 32718

Please see Schedule of Classes

This course introduces the history of the lands that became the United States, from antiquity through the Civil War. Examining and interpreting original historical sources, we will focus on interactions among Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans on the North American continent; the social, political, and environmental changes wrought by those interactions; the development of colonial societies; the founding of the United States and the evolution of its political institutions; the spread of new ideas and cultural practices; and the clash of competing claims about power, rights, salvation, and the good life. Requirements include short written exercises, in-class midterm examinations, and a take-home final.

 

Rhetoric 157 AC Race and Order in the New Republic

  • day and time WF 12-2
  • location 215 Dwinelle
  • instructor N. Permaul
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 23391

This course will explore how the social issue of race in the new American republic shaped the political founding of the United States in 1787. We will investigate perceptions of race at the time of the founding, and try to understand the origins of those perceptions. We will examine how those same perceptions affected the founding and establishment of a new nation and how they have affected our contemporary social and political discourse.

 

Senior Thesis Seminars

American Studies 191 Senior Thesis Seminar

  • day and time F 12-2
  • location 72 Evans Hall
  • instructor S. Gold McBride
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 15057
  • Spring 2022

This seminar is designed to provide structure and support for American Studies students as they write their senior thesis. Over the course of the semester, students will plan, research, write, and revise a piece of original scholarship: an analytical essay of approximately 30–35 pages focused on an aspect of American culture. Although each student will write their own thesis paper independently, this seminar will function as a collaborative and supportive thesis workshop that will provide students with preparatory assignments, resources and advice for all stages of the thesis process, individual meetings with a thesis advisor, and regular meetings with a collaborative and supportive class community of fellow thesis writers.

American Studies H 195 Honors Thesis Seminar

  • day and time Th 2-4
  • location 122 Latimer Hall
  • instructor A. Craghead
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 18934
  • Spring 2022

FACULTY ADVISOR APPROVAL AND/OR INSTRUCTOR CONSENT REQUIRED

« NOTE: In order to receive honors in American Studies, a student must have an overall UC GPA of 3.51, and a GPA of 3.65 for all courses taken in completion of the major (upper- and lower-division). Students should discuss their eligibility with an American Studies faculty advisor.

Honors Seminar

American Studies H 110 The New Gilded Age

  • day and time T 2-5
  • location 102 Social Sciences Building
  • instructor M. Brilliant
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 24132

FACULTY ADVISOR APPROVAL AND/OR INSTRUCTOR CONSENT REQUIRED

The “new Gilded Age” is a term that scholars, pundits, and activists in recent years have used to refer to the sharp increase in economic inequality in the United States, the increasing concentration of income and wealth in the hands of the nation’s well-to-do, especially its richest 1-percent and above. The roots of this watershed in recent American history are many and run deep. This course will trace some of those roots, examining the origins of America’s new Gilded Age by focusing on major transformations in economics, politics, and education in the 1970s and 1980s. Along the way, we will also consider some of the social experiences and cultural expressions of Americans as they lived through the new Gilded Age.

Special Courses of Interest

American Studies C 152 Native American Literature

  • day and time TTh 12:30-2
  • location 106 Moffitt
  • instructor E. Lima
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 22190

Native American Studies C152

An analysis of the written and oral tradition developed by Native Americans. Emphasis will be placed on a multifaceted approach (aesthetic, linguistic, psychological, historical, and cultural) in examining American Indian literature.

 

American Studies 189 Research and Writing in American Studies

  • day and time F 10-12
  • location 7 Evans Hall
  • instructor S. Gold McBride
  • 3 Units
  • Class # 24062

This class is designed to provide a solid foundation for American Studies majors preparing to write their senior thesis next semester or next year. Through weekly seminar meetings, one-on-one conversations, and regular research and writing assignments, we will work together to strengthen your skills as an American Studies scholar, and to develop thesis project plans for every student. We will focus on both the creative and practical aspects of producing American Studies scholarship: we will read examples of excellent cultural studies writing, practice key skillsets like writing a strong research question, and discuss the logistics of tracking down library resources. By the end of the semester, you will have a thesis topic, a solid list of primary sources to investigate, and a plan for a thesis project that will help you feel confident when you enroll in Amerstd 191 or Amerstd H195.

English 100 Atlantic Haunts, Black Possession

  • day and time MW 5-6:30
  • location 305 Wheeler
  • instructor N. D. Ellis
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 25868

An introduction to black diasporic criticism, this seminar uses various angles of approach toward the notion of the spirit, the haunt, and the possession in order to trace a tradition of black presence English literatures and cultures. We will study fiction, artifacts from the visual and anthropological archive, contemporary poetry, and examples from popular culture–a range of genres that represents the multi-modal techniques of black literary studies. Key interlocuters will include: Toni Morrison, Saidiya Hartman, Christina Sharpe, Roberto Strongman, Omise’eke Natasha Tinsley, and Hazel Carby. Assignments will be geared towards developing a working knowledge of important concepts, debates, and interventions in the field — and will range from the brief and experimental to a substantial immersion in a key text.

 

English 130 C American Literature: 1865-1900

  • day and time TTh 3:30-5:00
  • location 150 GSPP
  • instructor E. Tamarkin
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 305134

A survey of major works of U.S. literature after the Civil War, with special attention to artistic experimentation in these years and to the rise of “realism” in literature. The “Gilded Age” put unprecedented faith in ideals of progress and individualism, in economic expansion and big business. It also was marked by all the problems of Reconstruction, by racial injustice and the rise of Jim Crow laws, by deep poverty, and by unresolved debates about the role of the federal government in social welfare. Writers responded to this moment in a variety of surprising ways that also reflected on literature’s uncertain status as a medium of social protest or else as a separate realm outside the new social realities that were made visible to readers like never before. Our authors will include Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Stephen Crane, William Dean Howells, Charles Chesnutt, Mark Twain, Jacob Riis, Henry James, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Edith Wharton.

English 133 T Topics in African American Literature and Culture: The Art of Black Diaspora

  • day and time MW 2-3
  • location 102 Wheeler
  • instructor N. D. Ellis
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 26180

The black diaspora is, amongst other things, a literary tradition: a complex, cross-generic set of texts produced by black writers located in almost every nation across the globe, equal in complexity and variation to the modern concept of race that is inextricably tied to its formation. But how can one conceptual framework possibly contain such a dazzlingly various canon? In this class we’ll read novels, watch films, listen to music, and look at art to begin to answer that question. We’ll read critics and thinkers to understand the history of black diaspora, the political implications of its formations, and the theories underwriting its vibrant and varied aesthetics. We will move through a broad sweep of the twentieth century and into the contemporary moment, and we’ll cover a wide variety of contexts and genres. This variety and breadth is crucial to laying a foundation in the field and to opening up the issue of identity-across-difference that is fundamental in black diasporic culture.

English 166 Form and Invention in Native American Literature

  • day and time MW 2-3
  • location 106 Stanley
  • instructor B. Piatote
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 32539

This course explores a wide range of literary production by Native American/Indigenous writers from the nineteenth century to present, drawing out the various linguistic and literary influences present in the works. The course is organized thematically around concepts such as language, protest, genre, animacy, and story to show both continuity and invention across time. The foundations of Indigenous languages, literacies, and forms will be emphasized, while also analyzing how Native American writers have consistently appropriated Western literary forms and styles to express a distinctive aesthetic. Course materials will include traditional stories in their own languages (with translation), poems, sermons, novels, short stories, plays, and speculative fiction. Evaluation will be based on short papers and exams and a final research paper.

English 174 Literature and History: The Seventies

  • day and time TTh 3:30-5
  • location 204 Wheeler
  • instructor S. Saul
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 30515

As one writer quipped, it was the worst of times, it was the worst of times. “The Seventies” routinely come in for mockery as an era of bad taste — an era when enormous sideburns, leisure suits, extra-wide bell bottoms, pet rocks, and “diet” mackerel pudding made sense to all too many Americans. Even at the time, the 1970s were known as the decade when “it seemed like nothing happened.” Yet we can see now that the ’70s was a time of great cultural renaissance and political ferment. It gave us the New Hollywood of Scorcese, Coppola and others; the “New Journalism” of Michael Herr, Joan Didion, and others; the music of funk, disco, punk and New Wave; the postmodern comedy of Saturday Night Live and the postmodern drama of Off-Off-Broadway; and a great range of literary fiction written by women authors from Ursula LeGuin and Margaret Atwood to Toni Morrison and Maxine Hong Kingston. Rather than simply being a transitional period between the “liberal” 1960s and “conservative” 1980s, it was in fact a period of intense political realignment, with the United States roiled by the oil crisis, the fall of Nixon and the fall of Saigon; by the advent of women’s liberation, gay liberation, and environmentalism as mass grassroots movements; and by the rise of the Sunbelt and the dawning of the conservative revolution. One might even say that the ’70s were the most interesting decade of the post-WWII era — the period when the dreams of the ‘60s were most intensely, if achingly, fulfilled. Lastly, the ’70s may be the decade closest to our own contemporary moment. We will consider how the roots of our current predicament lie in the earlier decade — with its backlash against movements for racial justice and gender equality, its gun culture, its corruption of the political process, its transition to a postindustrial economy, its widening inequality, its fetish for self-fulfillment, and its fascination with the appeal of instant celebrity. We will, in turn, reflect on how Americans in the ’70s struggled with many of the dilemmas that we face now.

 

 

 

History 100 AC Sports and Gender in U.S. History

  • day and time TTh 12:30-2
  • location 100 Genetics and Plant Biology
  • instructor B. Morris
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 32169

This course welcomes all students to examine the social, cultural and political history of American sports, with a focus on sex roles, the body and public racial identities. From the colonial era through the long history of segregation to the growing empowerment of women, athletes have represented ideals of masculinity, femininity and nationalism. How have state, media, medical and corporate authorities framed winners and losers or placed limits on certain competitors? Readings, films, guest speakers and class discussion will emphasize the history of children’s games, homophobia, coaching and fan behaviors, Olympic scandals and wartime teams (such as women’s baseball leagues, and Little League ball in Japanese-American internment camps.) We’ll consider gender, race and class in the history of strength training, recreation, mascots, sportswear, toys, body size and food. All cultural perspectives are welcome. Instructor bio: Bonnie J. Morris is the author of 19 books and has taught women’s sports history for twenty-five years, first at George Washington University and Georgetown, and recently on Semester at Sea, as well as at Cal. She is also a women’s history consultant to Disney Animation, the Smithsonian and the State Department. Her new book, What’s the Score, includes reflections from many students who enjoyed taking this course at Cal.

History 125 B African American History and Race Relations: 1860-2016

  • day and time TTh 2-3:30
  • location 219 Dwinelle
  • instructor W. Martin
  • 4 Units
  • Class # 25529

101 - T 4-5, 235 Dwinelle
102 - Th 12-1, 54 Soc Sci Bldg

This course will examine the history of African Americans and race relations from the Civil War and Emancipation (1861-1865) as well as Reconstruction (1865-1877) Eras through the modern African American Freedom Movement (1941-1980). We will conclude with the post-Civil Rights-Black Power era (1980-2016). Major social, cultural, political, and economic developments will be emphasized. Possible texts: 1) Tera Hunter, To ‘Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women’s Lives and Labors After the Civil War; 2) John Hope Franklin, ed., Three Negro Classics [including: W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk; Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery; James Weldon Johnson, The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man]; 3) Lisa Levenstein, A Movement Without Marches: African American Women and the Politics of Poverty in Postwar Philadelphia; 4) Waldo E. Martin, Jr., Brown v. Board of Education: A Documentary History (2d edition); 5) Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Jr., Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party; 6) Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. There will be two exams—a midterm and a final—and two short response papers.